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Constitution of Union of Yuktobanian Republics

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Preambule

CONSTITUTION
(FUNDAMENTAL LAW)

OF

THE UNION OF YUKTOBANIAN REPUBLICS

Adopted at the Seventh (Special) Session of
the Supreme Workers’ Party of the UYR Ninth Convocation
On October 7, 1993


The Great Revolution, made by the workers and peasants of Yuktobania overthrew capitalism, broke the fetters of oppression, established the state of people, and created the new Yuktobanian state, a new type of state, the basic instrument for defending the gains of the revolution and for building socialism. Humanity thereby began the epoch-making turn from capitalist to socialism. After achieving victory in the Civil War and repulsing imperialist intervention, the Yuktobanian government carried through far-reaching social and economic transformations, and put an end once and for all to exploitation of man by man, antagonisms between classes, and strive between nationalities. The unification of the Yuktobanian Republics in the Union of Yuktobanian Republics multiplied the forces and opportunities of the peoples of the country in the building of socialism. genuine democracy for the working masses were established for the sake of the Yuktobanian people. Continuing their creative endeavors, the working people of the UYR have ensured rapid, all-round development of the country and steady improvement of the socialist system. They have consolidated the alliance of the working class, collective-farm peasantry, and people's intelligentsia, and friendship of the nations and nationalities of the UYR. Socio-political and ideological unity of Yuke society, in which the working class is the leading force, has been achieved The leading role of the Socialist Party, the vanguard of all the people, has grown. It is a society in which powerful productive forces and progressive science and culture have been created, in which the well-being of the people is constantly rising, and more and more favourable conditions are being provided for the all-round development of the individual. It is a society of mature socialist social relations, in which, on the basis of the drawing together of all classes and social strata and of the juridical and factual equality of all its nations and nationalities and their fraternal co-operation, a new historical community of people has been formed--the Yuktobanian people. It is a society of high organisational capacity, ideological commitment, and consciousness of the working people, who are patriots and internationalists. It is a society in which the law of life is concern of all for the good of each and concern of each for the good of all. It is a society of true democracy, the political system of which ensures effective management of all public affairs, ever more active participation of the working people in running the state, and the combining of citizen's real rights and freedoms with their obligations and responsibility to society. hereby affirm the principle so the social structure and policy of the UYR, and define the rights, freedoms and obligations of citizens, and the principles of the organisation of the socialist state of the whole people, and its aims, and proclaim these in this Constitution.

Chapter 1: The Political System

Article 1. The Union of Yuktobanian Republics is a democratic socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country.

Article 2. All power in the UYR belongs to the people.The people exercise state power through People's Deputies, which constitute the political foundation of the UYR. All other state bodies are under the control of, and accountable to, the People's Deputies.

Article 3. The Yuktobanian state is organised and functions on the principle of democratic semi-centralism, namely the electiveness of all bodies of state authority from the lowest to the highest, their accountability to the people, and the obligation of lower bodies to observe the decisions of higher ones. Democratic semi-centralism combines central leadership with local initiative, limited authorities and creative activity and with the responsibility of the each state body and official for the work entrusted to them.

Article 4. The Yuktobanian state and all its bodies function on the basis of socialist law, ensure the maintenance of law and order, and safeguard the interests of society and the rights and freedoms of citizens. State organisations, public organisations and officials shall observe the Constitution of the UYR.

Article 5. Major matters of state shall be submitted to nationwide discussion and put to a popular vote (post-referendum).

Article 6. The leading and guiding force of the Yuktobanian society and the nucleus of its political system, of all state organisations and public organisations, is the Socialist Worker’s Party of theYuktobanian Republics/Yuktobania Socialist Worker’s Party. The WPYR/YSWP exists for the people and serves the people.

Article 7. Trade unions, the socialist youth, and other public organisations, participate, in accordance with the aims laid down in their rules, in managing state and public affairs, and in deciding political, economic, and social an cultural matters.

Article '8'. The principal direction in the development of the political system of Yuktobanian society is the extension of socialist democracy, namely ever broader participation of citizens in managing the affairs of society and the state, continuous improvement of the machinery of state, heightening of the activity of public organisations, strengthening of the system of people's control, consolidation of the legal foundations of the functioning of the state and of public life, greater openness and publicity, and constant responsiveness to public opinion.

Chapter 2: The Economic System

Article 9''''. The foundation of the economic system of the UYR is may be in private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership. Such ownership is part of the people’s freedom, and rights. But, in order to maintain socialist development government shall make sure the private ownership or means of production is intended to prosper the working people. No one has the right to use their property for selfish ends which may lead toward oppression of the people.

Article 10. Production branches which important for the state or the living condition of Yuktobanian society shall be part of state ownership, including earth, water, and mineral resources shall be part of state ownership, and shall be fully devoted for the development of the people of UYR.

Article 11. Private owners must fully cooperate with the legal state government, and its role as market’s observer, and as stated on article 9. Private ownership must aims for constant development of the UYR people, and environmentally responsible.

Article 12. In the UYR, the law permits individual labour in handicrafts, farming, the provision of services for the public, and other forms of activity based exclusively on the personal work of individual citizens and members of their families. The state makes regulations for such work to ensure that it serves the interest of society.\

'Article 13''''''. In the interests of the present and future generations, the necessary steps are taken in the UYR to protect and make scientific, rational use of the land and its mineral and water resources, and the plant and animal kingdoms, to preserve the purity of air and water, ensure reproduction of natural wealth, and improve the human environment.

Chapter 3: Social Development and Culture

Article 1'4'. The social basis of the UYR is the unbreakable alliance of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia.

The state helps enhance the social heterogeneity of cultures, races, and religions by providing sufficient freedom. But, no cultures, races, and religions shall be distinguished in front of law, and no one shall be distinguished in fulfilling their prosperity, and access toward social services.

Article 15. In accordance with the socialist ideal--"The free development of each is the condition of the free development of all"--the state pursues the aim of giving citizens more and more real opportunities to apply their creative energies, abilities, and talents, and to develop their personalities in every way.

Article 16. The state concerns itself with improving working conditions, safety and labour protection and the scientific organisation of work, and with reducing and ultimately eliminating all arduous physical labour through comprehensive mechanisation and automation of production processes in all branches of the economy.

Article 17. The state pursues a steady policy of raising people's pay levels and real incomes through increase in productivity. In order to satisfy the needs of Yuktobanian people more fully social consumption funds are created. The state, with the broad participation of public organisations and work collectives, ensures the growth and just distribution of these funds.

Article 18. In the UYR there is a uniform system of public education, which is being constantly improved, that provides general education and vocational training for citizens, serves the socialist education and intellectual and physical development of the youth, and trains them for work and social activity.

Article 19. In accordance with society's needs, the state provides for planned development of science and the training of scientific personnel and organises introduction of the results of research in the economy and other spheres of life.

Article 20. The state concerns itself with protecting, augmenting and making extensive use of society's cultural wealth for the moral and aesthetic education of the Yuktobanian people, for raising their cultural level. In the UYR development of the professional, amateur and folk arts is encouraged in every way.


Article 21. Everryone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical, and other types of creative activity. Intellectual property shall be protected by the law.

Chapter 4: The Union Structure

Article 22. The Union of Yuktobanian Republic includes the following subjects of the Union of Yuktobanian Republic

Central Administration Republic, Javoronok Yuktobanian Republic, Smolensk Yuktobanian Republic, Borei Yuktobanian Republic, Raduga Yuktobanian Republic, Almaz Yuktobanian Republic, Bulava Yuktobanian Republic, Istochnik Yuktobanian Republic, Nefrit Yuktobanian Republic, Duga Yuktobanian Republic, Molniya Yuktobanian Republic, Kazan Yuktobanian Republic, Kopjyo Yuktobanian Republic, Tunguska Yuktobanian Republic;

Svetlyak Region, Shtil Region, Sevmash Region, Dvina Region, Izhevsk Region, Pobeda Region, Dvina Region, Glubina Region, Strela Region, Pechora Region, Dubna Region, Semya Region, Angara Region, Dresdene Region, Skladka Region, Volna Region, Igla Region, Granot Region, Anthy Region, Bastok Region, Strela Region;

Cinigrad, Ockhabursk-cities of union importance.

Special Autonomous Regions;

Antey Autonomous Area, Vympel Autonomous Area, Trans-Karabastan Autonomous Area, Trans-Kaluga Autonomous Area.

2. Central Administration Republic is a Yuktobanian republic located in the middle of Yuktobanian land, its borders stretch from City of Kirovski, to City of Zakat.

Article 23. The territory of the Union of Yuktobanian Republics shall include its territories on its subjects, inland waters, territorial sea, and the air space over them.

Article 24. The head of state of Union of Yuktobanian Republic shall be the Prime Minister which is elected directly and officially by the Yuktobanian people, and shall be legalized by the supreme committee of Yuktobanian Socialist Party.

Article 25. The Prime Minister of The Union of Yuktobanian Republics shall be guarantor of the Yuktobanian constitution, of the rights, and freedom of the people. Prime Minister shall adopts measures to protect the sovereignty of the Union of Yuktobanian Republics, its independence and state integrity, ensure coordinated functioning and interaction of all the bodies of state power.

Chapter 5: Assemblies Within The Union of Yuktobanian Republics

Article 26: Parliament and legislative power belong to the Supreme Worker’s Party of Yuktobania as Yuktobanian example of  Federal assembly, Yuktobanian People’s Committee as Yuktobanian example of lower house of representatives, meanwhile in the subject republics region, legislative power belong to their worker’s parties, and unions. These assemblies share similar roles withint UYR government. Supreme Worker’s Party of Yuktobania is intended to observe, and amending the national constitution, and inaugurate executive leaders of UYR.

Article 27: Representatives on all assemblies shall be elected directly by the people, and these representatives shall rule for 5 years and shall be replaced at the next elections.

Chapter 6: Foreign Policy

Article 28: The UYR steadfastly pursues a policy of peace and stands for strengthening of the security of nations and broad international co-operation.

The foreign policy of the UYR is aimed at ensuring international conditions favourable for building Socialism in the UYR, safeguarding the state and the people’s interests of the Yuktobanian Republics, consolidating the positions of world socialism, supporting the struggle of peoples for national liberation and social progress, preventing wars of aggression, achieving universal and complete disarmament, and consistently implementing the principle of the peaceful coexistence of states with different social systems.

Article 29. The UYR's relations with other states are based on observance of the following principles: sovereign equality; mutual renunciation of the use or threat of force; inviolability of frontiers; territorial integrity of states; peaceful settlement of disputes; non-intervention in internal affairs; respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; the equal rights of peoples and their right to decide their own destiny; co-operation among states; and fulfilment in good faith of obligations arising from the generally recognised principles and rules of international law, and from the international treaties signed by the UYR.

Article 30. The UYR, as part of the world system of socialism and of the socialist community, promotes and strengthens friendship, co-operation, and comradely mutual assistance with other socialist countries on the basis of the principle of socialist internationalism, and takes an active part in socialist economic integration and the socialist international division of labour.

Chapter 7: Defence of The Socialist Motherland

Article 31. Defence of the Socialist Motherland is one of the most important functions of the state, and is the concern of the whole people.

In order to defend the gains of socialism, the peaceful labour of the Yuktobanian people, and the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, the UYR maintains armed forces and has instituted universal military service.

The duty of the Armed Forces of the UYR to the people is to provide reliable defence of the socialist Motherland and to be in constant combat readiness, guaranteeing that any aggressor is instantly repulsed.

Article 32. The state ensures the security and defence capability of the country, and supplies the Armed Forces of the UYR with everything necessary for that purpose.

The duties of state bodies, public organisations, officials, and citizens in regard to safeguarding the country's security and strengthening its defence capacity are defined by the legislation of the UYR. 

Chapter 20: Courts and Arbitration

'Article '33''. In the UYR justice is administered only by the courts.

In the UYR there are the following courts: the Supreme Court of the UYR, the Supreme Courts of Union Republics, the Supreme Courts of Autonomous Republics, Territorial, Regional, and city courts, courts of Autonomous Regions, courts of Autonomous Areas, district (city) people's courts, and military tribunals in the Armed Forces.

'Article '34''''''. All courts in the UYR shall be formed on the principle of the electiveness of judges and people's assessors.

People's judges of district (city) people's courts shall be elected for a term of five years by the citizens of the district (city) on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. People's assessors of district (city) people's courts shall be elected for a term of two and a half years at meetings of citizens at their places of work or residence by a show of hands.

Higher courts shall be elected for a term of five years by the corresponding Yuktobanian People's Deputies.

The judges of military tribunals shall be elected for a term of five years by the Presidium of the Supreme Worker’s Party of the UYR and by people's assessors for a term of two and a half years by meetings of servicemen.

Judges and people's assessors are responsible and accountable to their electors or the bodies that elected them, shall report to them, and may be recalled by them in the manner prescribed by law.

'Article '35''''''. The Supreme Court of the UYR is the highest judicial body in the UYR and supervises the administration of justice by the courts of the UYR and Union Republics within the limits established by law.

The Supreme Court of the UYR shall be elected by the Supreme Worker’s Party of the UYR and shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, members, and people's assessors. The Chairmen of the Supreme Courts of Union Republics are ex officio members of the Supreme Court of the UYR. The organisation and procedure of the Supreme Court of the UYR are defined in the Law on the Supreme Court of the UYR.

'Article '36''''''. The hearing of civil and criminal cases in all courts is collegial; in courts of first instance cases are heard with the participation of people's assessors. In the administration of justice people's assessors have all the rights of a judge.

'Article '37''''''. Judges and people's assessors are independent and subject only to the law.

Article 38''''. Justice is administered in the UYR on the principle of the equality of citizens before the law and the court.

'Article '39''''''. Proceedings in all courts shall be open to the public. Hearings in camera are only allowed in cases provided for by law, with observance of all the rule of judicial procedure.

'Article '40''''''. A defendant in a criminal action is guaranteed the right to legal assistance.

'Article '41''''''. Judicial proceedings shall be conducted in the language of the Union Republic, Autonomous Republic, Autonomous Region, or Autonomous Area, or in the language spoken by the majority of the people in the locality. Persons participating in court proceedings, who do not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall be ensured the right to become fully acquainted with the materials in the case; the services of an interpreter during the proceedings; and the right to address the court in their own language.

'Article '42''''''. No one may be adjudged guilty of a crime and subjected to punishment as a criminal except by the sentence of a court and in conformity with the law.

'Article '43''''''. Colleges of advocates are available to give legal assistance to citizens and organisations. In cases provided for by legislation citizens shall be given legal assistance free of charge.

The organisation and procedure of the bar are determined by legislation of the UYR and Union Republics.

Article 44. Representatives of public organisations and of work collectives may take part in civil and criminal proceedings.

'Article '45''''''. Economic disputes between enterprises, institutions, and organisations are settled by state arbitration bodies within the limits of their jurisdiction.

The organisations and manner of functioning of state arbitration bodies are defined in the Law on State Arbitration in the UYR. 

Chapter 21: The Procurator's Office

Article 46''''. Supreme power of supervision over the strict and uniform observance of laws by all ministries, state committees and departments, enterprises, institutions and organisations, executive-administrative bodies of local People's Deputies, collective farms, co-operatives and other public organisations, officials and citizens is vested in the Procurator-General of the UYR and procurators subordinate to him.

''Article '47'. The Procurator-General of the UYR is appointed by the Supreme Worker’s Party of the UYR and is responsible and accountable to it and, between sessions of the Supreme Worker’s Party, to the Presidium of the Supreme Worker’s Party of the UYR.

''Article '48'. The procurators of Union Republics, Autonomous Republics, Territories, Regions and Autonomous Regions are appointed by the Procurator-General of the UYR. The procurators of Autonomous Areas and district and city procurators are appointed by the Procurators of Union Republics, subject to confirmation by the Procurator-General of the UYR.

Article 49. The term of office of the Procurator-General of the UYR and all lower-ranking procurators shall be five years.

'Article '50''''''. The agencies of the Procurator's Office exercise their powers independently of any local bodies whatsoever, and are subordinate solely to the Procurator-General of the UYR. The organisation and procedure of the agencies of the Procurator's Office are defined in the Law on the Procurator's Office of the UYR. 

Chapter 22: The Legal Force of The Constitution of The UYR and Procedure For Amending The Constitution

'Article '51. The Constitution of the UYR shall have supreme legal force. All laws and other acts of state bodies shall be promulgated on the basis of and in conformity with it.

'Article '52. The Constitution of the UYR may be amended by a decision of the Supreme Worker’s Party of the UYR adopted by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total number of Deputies of each of its chambers. 

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